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A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of Southern Africa by Paul H. Skelton

By Paul H. Skelton

Книга является определителем пресноводных рыб южноафриканского региона. Описание видов включает: цветной рисунок, карту распространения, символы, указывающие степень использования и охранный статус, в также детальное текстовую характеристику рыбы и ее местообитаний. Имеются определительные ключи для идентификации семейств, родов и видов.
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Unicolor; 5. adansonii; 6. lamarckii; 9. sahariensis; 10. intermissa larger black bee, major (Ruttner 1975) associated with the Rif and close to the mediterranean coast. Intermediate morphological variability was found in the bees south of the Rif range, suggesting an intermissa x major hybrid zone (Bro Adam 1983, 1987; Corouet et al. 1988). Other studies of potential interest would have been those of Lebdi-Grissa et al. (1991b). But, because they were primarily interested in the phylogenetic affinities between bees of Tunisia and other subspecies in the mediterranean area, they did not specify the ten localities from which their samples came, nor did they provide unprocessed numerical data.

Rinderer et al. (1990) showed that good separations of even the FI hybrids of Africanised and European bees can be obtained using multivariate discriminant analysis. 2 Environmental Effects A number of authors, however, stressed the susceptibility of morphological characters to environmental effects (Alpatov 1929; Grout 1937; Daly & Balling 1978; Spivak et al. 1988; Cornuet & Garnery 1991a; Daly & Morse 1991; Nazzi 1992). Strong evidence of environmental influence on both the morphological and behavioural phenotype exists (Murphy 1973; Falconer 1989).

The equally small bees of the Arabian Peninsula were named jemenitica (Ruttner 1975). But in time, studies by Rashad and EI-Sarrag (1978, 1980), Saeed (1981), Mohamed (1982), Mogga (1988) and EI-Sarrag et al. (1992) revealed a high degree of variability in size, pigmentation and behaviour among the honeybees of Sudan as did Marnrno (1976) for Ethiopia. With additional information and measurements from the studies above, by 1988 Ruttner cancelled the use of "nubica" because those bees were morphometrically indistinguishable from his original Arabian jemenitica.

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