By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four offers precious details at the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our power provide procedure to extra effective, renewable energies.
The quantity discusses the subject from a world standpoint, proposing the most recent info on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.
It covers all elements of this significant semiconductor know-how, reflecting at the great and dynamic advances which were made in this subject considering the fact that 1975, while the 1st ebook on sun cells-written by means of Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now recognized sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.
Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and fast clinical improvement that results in the mandatory fee and price rate reductions in international business mass-production.
- Written through prime, the world over recognized specialists on his topic
- Provides an in-depth evaluate of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
- Discusses the demanding situations confronted in the course of the transformation of our strength offer approach to extra effective, renewable energies
- Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog
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Extra info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4,
The localized heat induction (from the bottom in the case of the feed rod and from the top for the growing crystal) results in very steep axial temperature gradients. At the solid–liquid interface, several hundred K/cm can be achieved (Dold, 2004), a feature to be discussed later in more detail. One problem is the starting of the process. At room temperature, the resistivity of normal feed rods is high—too high for any heat transfer by radiofrequency. Therefore, the feed rod has to be preheated.
Yield/structure loss: Structure loss is an important (or maybe the most important) parameter for the calculation of the real cost of ownership and the final dollar per wafer price. One of the great features of the Cz method is the fact that a loss of single crystallinity is detected immediately or it is even anticipated by careful observation of the structure and pronunciation of the four growth lines. Figure 13 shows the growth facets during the crystallization of the shoulder. If the facets are not all equally well pronounced or if one 5 As a fine powder, SiO is a pyrophoric substance, which has to be handled with great care.
FZ ingoting is still a niche market. Most of the manufacturers have longterm experience and the process is based on operator skills and there is a significant lack of automation. The combination of high equipment costs and the need for highly skilled operators is a certain barrier for newcomers to enter the FZ market. State of the art is 600 but still some 400 wafers are in use. A typical 400 FZ ingot is shown in Fig. 28. 800 equipment and process know-how are under development for the open market.