In chapters 12-18 of opposed to Proclus, Philoponus keeps to do conflict opposed to Proclus' arguments for the beginninglessness and everlastingness of the ordered universe. during this ultimate part there are 3 impressive concerns less than dialogue. the 1st matters the composition of the heavens and its demeanour of stream. Philoponus argues opposed to the Aristotelian thesis that there's a 5th heavenly physique that has a traditional round movement. He concludes that even if the celestial area consists of fireside and the opposite 3 components, it might movement in a circle by way of the organisation of its soul, and that this round movement isn't compromised whatsoever by way of the innate typical movement of the fire.Chapter sixteen includes a longer dialogue of the desire of God and His relation to details. right here Philoponus addresses concerns that turn into important to medieval philosophical and theological discussions, together with the solidarity, timelessness and indivisibility of God's will. eventually, all through those seven chapters Philoponus is engaged in a close exegesis of Plato's Timaeus which goals to settle a few general interpretive difficulties, significantly how we must always comprehend the pre-cosmic nation of disorderly movement, and the assertion that the seen cosmos is a picture of the paradigm. Philoponus' exegetical matters culminate in bankruptcy 18 with an intensive dialogue of Plato's perspective to poetry and fantasy.
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Additional resources for Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 12-18 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
For since the cosmos is constituted out of the extreme contraries fire and earth which are divided by both nature and their places, and since Plato says contraries are not of a nature to unite with each other, some intermediate was required to bind them together and to lead the universe together into a single union and coalition. However, since these [viz. fire and earth] are solids and not planes, he says it is impossible for them to be bound together by a single intermediate. This is the reason, then, he says, why the union required two intermediates – air and water.
Especially in the case of the homoiomerous things, the piece of the part differs from the part solely in quantity and not in form. But no one with any sense, I think, would determine on the basis of quantity whether one thing is a part of another or not. For if this plank is a part of the door, then the part of the plank is also a part of the door. For the small piece of wood has the same form as the greatest piece of wood insofar as they are wood. But it was agreed that the elements, too, are homoiomerous.
Therefore, in the case of the cosmos, too, since the elements [viz. the ensembles] are parts of the cosmos, then the parts of the elements are also parts of the whole cosmos. Putting it in a different way, if each of the elements [viz. the ensembles] is completely filled by its own parts, and again if the entire cosmos is in turn completely filled by the whole elements [viz. the ensembles], then the parts of the elements completely fill the whole cosmos. But the things that completely fill each whole are its parts.