Amid the Clouds and Mist: China's Colonization of Guizhou, by John E. Herman

By John E. Herman

In 1200, what's now southwest China--Guizhou, Yunnan, and the southern component to Sichuan used to be domestic to an collection of strikingly assorted cultures and governed through a mess of political entities. through 1750, China's army, political, sociocultural, and monetary associations have been firmly accountable for the zone, and plenty of of the area's cultures have been speedily changing into extinct. One goal of this e-book is to check how China's 3 past due imperial dynasties--the Yuan, Ming, and Qing--conquered, colonized, and assumed keep an eye on of the southwest. one other goal is to focus on the indigenous reaction to China's colonization of the southwest, relatively that of the Nasu Yi humans of western Guizhou and japanese Yunnan, the one workforce to depart an intensive written checklist.

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Extra resources for Amid the Clouds and Mist: China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200-1700

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By the beginning of the eighteenth century, the emperor would note in one relevant edict on the southwest: "The Rebellion of the Three Feudatories destroyed the ability of the barbari­ ans to resist us. The large and powerful barbarian leaders who chal­ lenged Ming rule are now gone. In recent years we have adopted poli­ cies that have transformed the barbarians into civilized men, and these policies have worked. "Z8 Kangxi presided over the final chapter in China's long colonization of the southwest frontier, and it was his decision that brought the Azhe patri­ clan's political control of Shuixi to an end.

18 The existence of the large and expansive Mu'ege kingdom nestled away in the impenetrable terrain of China's southwest frontier went largely unnoticed in contemporary Chinese accounts. There were the , i, " , , i j A Southern Kingdom, Mu' ege i 1 1 • 1 occasional official-sounding titles bestowed upon the patriarch of the Azhe, but in large part Chinese attention remained fixated elsewhere. Admittedly since few literate Han dared travel to the southwest prior to the Tang dynasty, we should not expect to find many Chinese accounts of the Mu'ege kingdom, or of the Nasu Yi for that matter.

Jurisdictional sovereignty symbolically asserted Ming rule of the heretofore indepen­ dent frontier and provided the necessary ideological point of departure in the state's move toward complete annexation gaitu guiliu (replacing tusi with state-appointed officials) . In this sense, Ming expansion into and annexation of the southwest frontier should be seen as a transition from jurisdictional sovereignty to territorial sovereignty and from informal to formal empire, and this transition was embedded in the tusi office.

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