An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment, by Joseph Holden

By Joseph Holden

The second one version of this best-selling and hugely revered textbook presents an obtainable and interesting advent to the main subject matters inside of actual geography. An advent to actual Geography and the surroundings is designed with a number of in-text beneficial properties corresponding to case stories and reflective inquiries to relief examine. in addition to this, scholars have entry to a wealthy and broad variety of on-line aid assets resembling additional weblinks, fieldwork worksheets, interactive versions and new videos of actual strategies in motion, all of so one can support them be successful of their actual Geography path.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment, 2nd Edition

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It uses repeatable research methods so that the same tests can be performed again as a quality control. There are different forms of positivist approach. Two important ones are logical positivism (or logical empiricism) and critical rationalism. In logical positivism scientists use inductive reasoning whereby unordered knowledge is defined, measured and classified into ordered knowledge. Once it is ordered, then regularities may be discovered and these might suggest a natural law. It uses experiments to acquire knowledge.

Dudley Stamp’s 1949 book The world: A general geography). 1 The quantitative revolution In the 1950s European and North American geography was forced to change. It was realized that describing places and putting boundaries around them, where in fact real boundaries did not actually exist, was no longer a useful approach. 2 Historical development of physical geography and views of the world. Global trade was increasing and mass-produced items such as refrigerators, cars and plastic became much-wanted goods.

It was not until the early 1900s and the discovery of radioactivity that estimates of the age of the Earth became more reliable. Radioactive elements such as uranium and strontium are unstable and decay at a steady rate. UraniumϪ238, for example, decays into leadϪ206. Comparing the ratio of these two elements allows us to determine how much time has passed since the uranium sample was pure when the rock solidified. Radioactive decay also gives off heat and we can determine the rate of Earth cooling to determine a time when it formed.

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