Ancient Civilizations

An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: by Peter B. Golden

By Peter B. Golden

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It was spoken and written (in the Indic Brahmi and Sogdian scripts) in Eastern Turkistan, in two variants, "Tokharian A" (Arsi or the language of Agni Qara Sahr) and "Tokharian B" (the language of Kuca) which are qui te different from one another. D. 46 40 Ramstedt, Einführung, 1, pp. 54,103·104; Sevortjan, Ètim. , I, pp. 521·523; Gamkrelidze, lvanov, lndoevropejcy, Il, pp. 579,938; Poppe, Ver-gleichende, 1, p. 12. Critical comments by R6na-Tas, 1988a, p. 395. Clauson, ED, p. 120, and many others, view ôküz as a borrowing from Tokhar.

Surâ "ein geistiges Getrânk," Turk, tana "young cow" < Old Ind. 45 In short, it seems most unlikely that IE or even Indo-Iranian elements entered Turkic before the breakup of lE and then Indo-Iranian unity ca. C. C. via Iranian and Tokharian, serving, perhaps, as :middlemen for terms from Indic. This would put the Turkic-speakers in the west of the Altaic world, but still weil to the east in an Inner Asian setting. The question of the Turkic Urheimat is again addressed in Chap. 5. Tokharian within lE belonged to the so-called centum or western grouping.

The Indo·European Urheimat and that the other Indo-European peoples migrated from there. 47 Men"es. TLP~ n 171 33 CHAPTERONE South-West Iranian: Persian/Fârsî (20,000,000? and others for whom it is a second language in Iran), closely related to it are Tajik (2,897,697 in Soviet Central Asia, largely in the Tajik and Uzbek SSRs) and Darî and variants (about 3,500,000 in Afghanistan), Tat(22,441 in Caucasus, USSR), Luri (350650,000 ? in Iran), Baxtiyârî (335-820,000 ? in Iran), Dialects of Fârs (Iran) North-Eastern lranian : Osetin, the descendent of Medieval Alana-As (541,893 in Caucasus, USSR), Yagnobî, the descendent of Sogdian (over 2000 in 1972, Tajik SSR, USSR).

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